Since then, Turkey has argued that it is a developing country and that it has gained special circumstances that allow it to opt out of funding. But it still cannot access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has said must change if Turkey wants to ratify the deal. Climate scientist and founder of Germany`s New Climate Institute, Niklas Huhne, said Turkey was “reseming” the list of countries that do not yet need to ratify the agreement. In addition to the Energy Efficiency Action Plan and the Renewable Energy Auctions, Turkey has made little progress in implementing the fight against climate change and, above all, has not yet ratified the Paris Agreement. In September 2019, ahead of the UN climate change summit, Turkey considered the financial package proposed by Germany and France, with the support of the United Nations and the World Bank, aimed at allaying Turkey`s concerns about ratification of the agreement, but to no avail at this time. The government appears to be stalling in the development of measures to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions: its 7th national communication projections (NC7) in 2018 have identical forecasts to those of the previous version (NC6) and INDC BAU 2015, while the fourth Biennial update report published at the end of 2019 projects almost identical emissions for 2030. However, the NC7 more accurately describes the guidelines contained in the NC6. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making “efforts” to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius. International agreements are initially signed to indicate their intention to do so, but they only become binding through ratification. It may be an act of Parliament or some other formal adoption. Processes vary from country to country.
Former U.S. President Barack Obama used controversial executive powers to ratify the 2016 Paris Agreement. Iran, Iraq and Libya – all members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (Opec) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the agreement. Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have yet to ratify the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. The Eiffel Tower in Paris, illuminated in green to celebrate the entry into force of the Paris Agreement, the most ambitious agreement in history, on November 4, 2016 (Photo: Jean-Baptiste Gurliat/ Paris City Hall) The country`s energy policy has increasingly focused on the so-called security of supply by domestic coal, which they say is necessary to support economic expansion. It is currently highly dependent on imported oil and gas, with very low domestic production. This has raised concerns about its exposure to volatile oil and gas prices. Turkey is particularly dependent on Russia for fossil fuel imports. We believe that by 2020, due to the global pandemic, Turkey`s emissions will be 3 to 5% lower than in 2019, but will have already returned to their 2019 level by 2021. The Turkish government has not embarked on a green recovery: the country`s economic stimulus efforts are focused on safeguarding jobs – especially for the under-25s – and on resuming growth focused on exports and production.
Until now, Turkey has operated only on voluntary CO2 markets, which have resulted in 1.9 million CO22e offsets for a total of $2 million in 2017, the sixth largest of all countries. This represents less than half of 1% of Turkey`s annual emissions. While Turkey currently does not operate any nuclear power plants, nuclear energy is another priority of its energy policy. The NDC 2015 highlighted plans to commission a nuclear power plant in